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submitted by bitminefarm1 to u/bitminefarm1 [link] [comments]

SEC warns public against 22 ‘investment scams’

KAPA-Community Ministry International Inc. is not the only entity that the investing public needs to watch out for.
According to an advisory issued by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), there are various unregistered investment entities that entice the public to invest their money in high-earning products.
Many of them are reaching out to prospective investors through social media.
“Investors are increasingly turning to social media, including Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, LinkedIn and other online networks for information about investing,” SEC warned in an advisory issued on May 31, 2019.
It noted that investment companies have begun soliciting investments through social media and warned the public to be on guard.
The SEC identified the companies MGA Business Enterprises, Coophub Multimedia Services, Jogle Innovative Marketing, Global Dream Zion, Grappler, Sherpan, BCT Marketing/BCT Motorcycle and Car Trading, RTM/RTM Pharmacy and General Merchandise, Diamond Marketing, Fusion Marketing, FMarket, Cirfund, Vibearn, Onepro, BCC/BCC Cosmetics Trading, Unlishop Compensation Plan Marketing, VUCC, Bitrain, Tcoin, Crowd Royals, ADA Farm Agri Venture and Nermie Marketing/Nermie Health and Beauty Products Trading as those soliciting investments through social media.
The SEC noted that the entities mentioned offer investment contracts in Facebook pages or secret Facebook groups and chatrooms.
They also reportedly offer “unrealistic return on investments,” ranging from 10 percent to 400 percent a month and require interested investors to pay initial investments by depositing their money to an account in a bank,, GCash, money remittance company or face-to-payment with an entity’s agent. Investors are then instructed to send through private message copies of proof of their deposits. Payouts are also made using the same methods.
Subject to SEC regulation
“They usually claim that they invest their funds in forex (foreign exchange), bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies to justify their earning capacity,” the SEC said.
The Commission added that such investment schemes “collapse as fast as they are created,” leaving investors unable to recoup their investments.
The SEC wants it known that such schemes, whether using money or cryptocurrency, are considered securities and subject to regulatory authority of SEC. It added that the recruitment of investor members “in the guise of sponsoring a person into the system” is also considered a form of investment solicitation or a sale of securities.
The sale of securities to the public without a permit or license from the SEC is a violation of the Securities Regulation Code.
To spot such investment scams, the SEC lists three common red flags to look out for.
If it sounds too good to be true, the SEC warns that it probably is. It cautioned investors to be wary of claims of “incredible gains” or “huge upside and almost no risk” investments.
The SEC also noted that such scams promise guaranteed returns. It warned that every investment entails some level of risk and that an investment that is 100 percent safe likely has low returns.
“Most fraudsters spend a lot of time trying to convince investors that extremely high returns are guaranteed or that the investment is a can’t-miss opportunity,” the SEC said.
Another red flag is the pressure to buy right away. The SEC encourages investors to think before investing and be skeptical of investments that are pitched as once-in-a-lifetime opportunities. The SEC encourages the public to consult its Enforcement and Investor Protection Department if they think they are being duped into an investment scam.
submitted by lopezjessy to phinvest [link] [comments]


Bitcoin Table of contents expand: 1. What is Bitcoin? 2. Understanding Bitcoin 3. How Bitcoin Works 4. What's a Bitcoin Worth? 5. How Bitcoin Began 6. Who Invented Bitcoin? 7. Before Satoshi 8. Why Is Satoshi Anonymous? 9. The Suspects 10. Can Satoshi's Identity Be Proven? 11. Receiving Bitcoins As Payment 12. Working For Bitcoins 13. Bitcoin From Interest Payments 14. Bitcoins From Gambling 15. Investing in Bitcoins 16. Risks of Bitcoin Investing 17. Bitcoin Regulatory Risk 18. Security Risk of Bitcoins 19. Insurance Risk 20. Risk of Bitcoin Fraud 21. Market Risk 22. Bitcoin's Tax Risk What is Bitcoin?
Bitcoin is a digital currency created in January 2009. It follows the ideas set out in a white paper by the mysterious Satoshi Nakamoto, whose true identity is yet to be verified. Bitcoin offers the promise of lower transaction fees than traditional online payment mechanisms and is operated by a decentralized authority, unlike government-issued currencies.
There are no physical bitcoins, only balances kept on a public ledger in the cloud, that – along with all Bitcoin transactions – is verified by a massive amount of computing power. Bitcoins are not issued or backed by any banks or governments, nor are individual bitcoins valuable as a commodity. Despite it not being legal tender, Bitcoin charts high on popularity, and has triggered the launch of other virtual currencies collectively referred to as Altcoins.
Understanding Bitcoin Bitcoin is a type of cryptocurrency: Balances are kept using public and private "keys," which are long strings of numbers and letters linked through the mathematical encryption algorithm that was used to create them. The public key (comparable to a bank account number) serves as the address which is published to the world and to which others may send bitcoins. The private key (comparable to an ATM PIN) is meant to be a guarded secret and only used to authorize Bitcoin transmissions. Style notes: According to the official Bitcoin Foundation, the word "Bitcoin" is capitalized in the context of referring to the entity or concept, whereas "bitcoin" is written in the lower case when referring to a quantity of the currency (e.g. "I traded 20 bitcoin") or the units themselves. The plural form can be either "bitcoin" or "bitcoins."
How Bitcoin Works Bitcoin is one of the first digital currencies to use peer-to-peer technology to facilitate instant payments. The independent individuals and companies who own the governing computing power and participate in the Bitcoin network, also known as "miners," are motivated by rewards (the release of new bitcoin) and transaction fees paid in bitcoin. These miners can be thought of as the decentralized authority enforcing the credibility of the Bitcoin network. New bitcoin is being released to the miners at a fixed, but periodically declining rate, such that the total supply of bitcoins approaches 21 million. One bitcoin is divisible to eight decimal places (100 millionths of one bitcoin), and this smallest unit is referred to as a Satoshi. If necessary, and if the participating miners accept the change, Bitcoin could eventually be made divisible to even more decimal places. Bitcoin mining is the process through which bitcoins are released to come into circulation. Basically, it involves solving a computationally difficult puzzle to discover a new block, which is added to the blockchain and receiving a reward in the form of a few bitcoins. The block reward was 50 new bitcoins in 2009; it decreases every four years. As more and more bitcoins are created, the difficulty of the mining process – that is, the amount of computing power involved – increases. The mining difficulty began at 1.0 with Bitcoin's debut back in 2009; at the end of the year, it was only 1.18. As of February 2019, the mining difficulty is over 6.06 billion. Once, an ordinary desktop computer sufficed for the mining process; now, to combat the difficulty level, miners must use faster hardware like Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC), more advanced processing units like Graphic Processing Units (GPUs), etc.
What's a Bitcoin Worth? In 2017 alone, the price of Bitcoin rose from a little under $1,000 at the beginning of the year to close to $19,000, ending the year more than 1,400% higher. Bitcoin's price is also quite dependent on the size of its mining network since the larger the network is, the more difficult – and thus more costly – it is to produce new bitcoins. As a result, the price of bitcoin has to increase as its cost of production also rises. The Bitcoin mining network's aggregate power has more than tripled over the past twelve months.
How Bitcoin Began
Aug. 18, 2008: The domain name is registered. Today, at least, this domain is "WhoisGuard Protected," meaning the identity of the person who registered it is not public information.
Oct. 31, 2008: Someone using the name Satoshi Nakamoto makes an announcement on The Cryptography Mailing list at "I've been working on a new electronic cash system that's fully peer-to-peer, with no trusted third party. The paper is available at" This link leads to the now-famous white paper published on entitled "Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System." This paper would become the Magna Carta for how Bitcoin operates today.
Jan. 3, 2009: The first Bitcoin block is mined, Block 0. This is also known as the "genesis block" and contains the text: "The Times 03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks," perhaps as proof that the block was mined on or after that date, and perhaps also as relevant political commentary.
Jan. 8, 2009: The first version of the Bitcoin software is announced on The Cryptography Mailing list.
Jan. 9, 2009: Block 1 is mined, and Bitcoin mining commences in earnest.
Who Invented Bitcoin?
No one knows. Not conclusively, at any rate. Satoshi Nakamoto is the name associated with the person or group of people who released the original Bitcoin white paper in 2008 and worked on the original Bitcoin software that was released in 2009. The Bitcoin protocol requires users to enter a birthday upon signup, and we know that an individual named Satoshi Nakamoto registered and put down April 5 as a birth date. And that's about it.
Before Satoshi
Though it is tempting to believe the media's spin that Satoshi Nakamoto is a solitary, quixotic genius who created Bitcoin out of thin air, such innovations do not happen in a vacuum. All major scientific discoveries, no matter how original-seeming, were built on previously existing research. There are precursors to Bitcoin: Adam Back’s Hashcash, invented in 1997, and subsequently Wei Dai’s b-money, Nick Szabo’s bit gold and Hal Finney’s Reusable Proof of Work. The Bitcoin white paper itself cites Hashcash and b-money, as well as various other works spanning several research fields.
Why Is Satoshi Anonymous?
There are two primary motivations for keeping Bitcoin's inventor keeping his or her or their identity secret. One is privacy. As Bitcoin has gained in popularity – becoming something of a worldwide phenomenon – Satoshi Nakamoto would likely garner a lot of attention from the media and from governments.
The other reason is safety. Looking at 2009 alone, 32,489 blocks were mined; at the then-reward rate of 50 BTC per block, the total payout in 2009 was 1,624,500 BTC, which at today’s prices is over $900 million. One may conclude that only Satoshi and perhaps a few other people were mining through 2009 and that they possess a majority of that $900 million worth of BTC. Someone in possession of that much BTC could become a target of criminals, especially since bitcoins are less like stocks and more like cash, where the private keys needed to authorize spending could be printed out and literally kept under a mattress. While it's likely the inventor of Bitcoin would take precautions to make any extortion-induced transfers traceable, remaining anonymous is a good way for Satoshi to limit exposure.
The Suspects
Numerous people have been suggested as possible Satoshi Nakamoto by major media outlets. Oct. 10, 2011, The New Yorker published an article speculating that Nakamoto might be Irish cryptography student Michael Clear or economic sociologist Vili Lehdonvirta. A day later, Fast Company suggested that Nakamoto could be a group of three people – Neal King, Vladimir Oksman and Charles Bry – who together appear on a patent related to secure communications that were filed two months before was registered. A Vice article published in May 2013 added more suspects to the list, including Gavin Andresen, the Bitcoin project’s lead developer; Jed McCaleb, co-founder of now-defunct Bitcoin exchange Mt. Gox; and famed Japanese mathematician Shinichi Mochizuki.
In December 2013, Techcrunch published an interview with researcher Skye Grey who claimed textual analysis of published writings shows a link between Satoshi and bit-gold creator Nick Szabo. And perhaps most famously, in March 2014, Newsweek ran a cover article claiming that Satoshi is actually an individual named Satoshi Nakamoto – a 64-year-old Japanese-American engineer living in California. The list of suspects is long, and all the individuals deny being Satoshi.
Can Satoshi's Identity Be Proven?
It would seem even early collaborators on the project don’t have verifiable proof of Satoshi’s identity. To reveal conclusively who Satoshi Nakamoto is, a definitive link would need to be made between his/her activity with Bitcoin and his/her identity. That could come in the form of linking the party behind the domain registration of, email and forum accounts used by Satoshi Nakamoto, or ownership of some portion of the earliest mined bitcoins. Even though the bitcoins Satoshi likely possesses are traceable on the blockchain, it seems he/she has yet to cash them out in a way that reveals his/her identity. If Satoshi were to move his/her bitcoins to an exchange today, this might attract attention, but it seems unlikely that a well-funded and successful exchange would betray a customer's privacy.
Receiving Bitcoins As Payment
Bitcoins can be accepted as a means of payment for products sold or services provided. If you have a brick and mortar store, just display a sign saying “Bitcoin Accepted Here” and many of your customers may well take you up on it; the transactions can be handled with the requisite hardware terminal or wallet address through QR codes and touch screen apps. An online business can easily accept bitcoins by just adding this payment option to the others it offers, like credit cards, PayPal, etc. Online payments will require a Bitcoin merchant tool (an external processor like Coinbase or BitPay).
Working For Bitcoins
Those who are self-employed can get paid for a job in bitcoins. There are several websites/job boards which are dedicated to the digital currency:
Work For Bitcoin brings together work seekers and prospective employers through its websiteCoinality features jobs – freelance, part-time and full-time – that offer payment in bitcoins, as well as Dogecoin and LitecoinJobs4Bitcoins, part of reddit.comBitGigs
Bitcoin From Interest Payments
Another interesting way (literally) to earn bitcoins is by lending them out and being repaid in the currency. Lending can take three forms – direct lending to someone you know; through a website which facilitates peer-to-peer transactions, pairing borrowers and lenders; or depositing bitcoins in a virtual bank that offers a certain interest rate for Bitcoin accounts. Some such sites are Bitbond, BitLendingClub, and BTCjam. Obviously, you should do due diligence on any third-party site.
Bitcoins From Gambling
It’s possible to play at casinos that cater to Bitcoin aficionados, with options like online lotteries, jackpots, spread betting, and other games. Of course, the pros and cons and risks that apply to any sort of gambling and betting endeavors are in force here too.
Investing in Bitcoins
There are many Bitcoin supporters who believe that digital currency is the future. Those who endorse it are of the view that it facilitates a much faster, no-fee payment system for transactions across the globe. Although it is not itself any backed by any government or central bank, bitcoin can be exchanged for traditional currencies; in fact, its exchange rate against the dollar attracts potential investors and traders interested in currency plays. Indeed, one of the primary reasons for the growth of digital currencies like Bitcoin is that they can act as an alternative to national fiat money and traditional commodities like gold.
In March 2014, the IRS stated that all virtual currencies, including bitcoins, would be taxed as property rather than currency. Gains or losses from bitcoins held as capital will be realized as capital gains or losses, while bitcoins held as inventory will incur ordinary gains or losses.
Like any other asset, the principle of buying low and selling high applies to bitcoins. The most popular way of amassing the currency is through buying on a Bitcoin exchange, but there are many other ways to earn and own bitcoins. Here are a few options which Bitcoin enthusiasts can explore.
Risks of Bitcoin Investing
Though Bitcoin was not designed as a normal equity investment (no shares have been issued), some speculative investors were drawn to the digital money after it appreciated rapidly in May 2011 and again in November 2013. Thus, many people purchase bitcoin for its investment value rather than as a medium of exchange.
However, their lack of guaranteed value and digital nature means the purchase and use of bitcoins carries several inherent risks. Many investor alerts have been issued by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA), the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB), and other agencies.
The concept of a virtual currency is still novel and, compared to traditional investments, Bitcoin doesn't have much of a long-term track record or history of credibility to back it. With their increasing use, bitcoins are becoming less experimental every day, of course; still, after eight years, they (like all digital currencies) remain in a development phase, still evolving. "It is pretty much the highest-risk, highest-return investment that you can possibly make,” says Barry Silbert, CEO of Digital Currency Group, which builds and invests in Bitcoin and blockchain companies.
Bitcoin Regulatory Risk
Investing money into Bitcoin in any of its many guises is not for the risk-averse. Bitcoins are a rival to government currency and may be used for black market transactions, money laundering, illegal activities or tax evasion. As a result, governments may seek to regulate, restrict or ban the use and sale of bitcoins, and some already have. Others are coming up with various rules. For example, in 2015, the New York State Department of Financial Services finalized regulations that would require companies dealing with the buy, sell, transfer or storage of bitcoins to record the identity of customers, have a compliance officer and maintain capital reserves. The transactions worth $10,000 or more will have to be recorded and reported.
Although more agencies will follow suit, issuing rules and guidelines, the lack of uniform regulations about bitcoins (and other virtual currency) raises questions over their longevity, liquidity, and universality.
Security Risk of Bitcoins
Bitcoin exchanges are entirely digital and, as with any virtual system, are at risk from hackers, malware and operational glitches. If a thief gains access to a Bitcoin owner's computer hard drive and steals his private encryption key, he could transfer the stolen Bitcoins to another account. (Users can prevent this only if bitcoins are stored on a computer which is not connected to the internet, or else by choosing to use a paper wallet – printing out the Bitcoin private keys and addresses, and not keeping them on a computer at all.) Hackers can also target Bitcoin exchanges, gaining access to thousands of accounts and digital wallets where bitcoins are stored. One especially notorious hacking incident took place in 2014, when Mt. Gox, a Bitcoin exchange in Japan, was forced to close down after millions of dollars worth of bitcoins were stolen.
This is particularly problematic once you remember that all Bitcoin transactions are permanent and irreversible. It's like dealing with cash: Any transaction carried out with bitcoins can only be reversed if the person who has received them refunds them. There is no third party or a payment processor, as in the case of a debit or credit card – hence, no source of protection or appeal if there is a problem.
Insurance Risk
Some investments are insured through the Securities Investor Protection Corporation. Normal bank accounts are insured through the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) up to a certain amount depending on the jurisdiction. Bitcoin exchanges and Bitcoin accounts are not insured by any type of federal or government program.
Risk of Bitcoin Fraud
While Bitcoin uses private key encryption to verify owners and register transactions, fraudsters and scammers may attempt to sell false bitcoins. For instance, in July 2013, the SEC brought legal action against an operator of a Bitcoin-related Ponzi scheme.
Market Risk
Like with any investment, Bitcoin values can fluctuate. Indeed, the value of the currency has seen wild swings in price over its short existence. Subject to high volume buying and selling on exchanges, it has a high sensitivity to “news." According to the CFPB, the price of bitcoins fell by 61% in a single day in 2013, while the one-day price drop in 2014 has been as big as 80%.
If fewer people begin to accept Bitcoin as a currency, these digital units may lose value and could become worthless. There is already plenty of competition, and though Bitcoin has a huge lead over the other 100-odd digital currencies that have sprung up, thanks to its brand recognition and venture capital money, a technological break-through in the form of a better virtual coin is always a threat.
Bitcoin's Tax Risk
As bitcoin is ineligible to be included in any tax-advantaged retirement accounts, there are no good, legal options to shield investments from taxation.
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Related Terms
The satoshi is the smallest unit of the bitcoin cryptocurrency. It is named after Satoshi Nakamoto, the creator of the protocol used in block chains and the bitcoin cryptocurrency.
Chartalism Chartalism is a non-mainstream theory of money that emphasizes the impact of government policies and activities on the value of money.
Satoshi Nakamoto The name used by the unknown creator of the protocol used in the bitcoin cryptocurrency. Satoshi Nakamoto is closely-associated with blockchain technology.
Bitcoin Mining, Explained Breaking down everything you need to know about Bitcoin Mining, from Blockchain and Block Rewards to Proof-of-Work and Mining Pools.
Understanding Bitcoin Unlimited Bitcoin Unlimited is a proposed upgrade to Bitcoin Core that allows larger block sizes. The upgrade is designed to improve transaction speed through scale.
Blockchain Explained
A guide to help you understand what blockchain is and how it can be used by industries. You've probably encountered a definition like this: “blockchain is a distributed, decentralized, public ledger." But blockchain is easier to understand than it sounds.
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By Satoshi Nakamoto
Read it once, go read other crypto stuff, read it again… keep doing this until the whole document makes sense. It’ll take a while, but you’ll get there. This is the original whitepaper introducing and explaining Bitcoin, and there’s really nothing better out there to understand on the subject.
“What is needed is an electronic payment system based on cryptographic proof instead of trust, allowing any two willing parties to transact directly with each other without the need for a trusted third party

submitted by adrian_morrison to BlockchainNews [link] [comments]

The Value of an OMG token, and Current Market Risks

I've seen a few posts over the past few days regarding where an OMG token actually derives its value from, and what would prevent another major company from coming along, dumping money into a payment network, and eating OMG's lunch. There was also some concern about Omise not being legally obligated to "honor" the OMG token, and the potential for them to just abandon the project in favor of something else.
These posts have been a breath of fresh air, as I feel that for a while, this sub was overly euphoric about the OMG project. Reading these skeptical posts show that the people in the market have weighed some of the risks the project is facing, which suggests that they're discerning investors, and not just moonkids. I wanted to take some time to address these concerns, though. Although I don't have any inside info, and although I don't have any formal economic or financial training, analyzing financial networks has been a bit of a hobby of mine for a while. Take this with a grain of salt.
1) The benefits of decentralization - Although Omise is a very mature company in the crypto world, it is a small fish in the global financial arena. That space is in a hyper-competitive world of many small/medium payment processors, where companies struggle to differentiate themselves and compete on an economies of scale standpoint with the massive players like Visa, Paypal, and Mastercard.
Building and maintaining a network is expensive. I couldn't even hazard a guess of the security costs Visa foots every year, but I expect that these costs (combined with the costs of maintaining the network infrastructure) are comparable to the entire market cap of OMG. This cost crushes any small small player, as some costs are fixed. For example, security measure X may cost $20M whether your company's revenue is $10B or $30M. With fixed costs such as this, it's very difficult to become a "big player" while maintaining control of your payment network.
By decentralizing its network with OMG and PoS, Omise does not need to have anywhere near the same built in security. The whole idea of a decentralized network is that there is no single point of failure. There is no server to hack, and there is no bank to rob. As such, one doesn't need security guards, network engineers, firewalls or DDOS protection. They also don't need to pay the associated costs of these measures. By decentralizing, they can charge an x% fee to use the network, and still remain profitable. A centralized network may have to charge a 2x% fee to meet their higher operating costs. All else being equal, which network will a consumer use for a transaction? The answer is the cheaper one, every time.
Google is a massive company. Visa is a massive company. Apple is a massive company. They will never get approval from their corporate board to develop a network that they don't explicitly control. As such, their op costs will always be higher then Omise/OMG's, regardless of scales of economy. In short, the decentralized aspect of Omise's network after OMG and PoS are complete not only differentiates them from the many other small players in the e-wallet scene, it puts them in an entire different field, even when compared to what major companies can offer the consumer.
2) Why Omise wouldn't abandon OMG - I've seen some worries about Omise getting greedy down the road once money's rolling in, abandoning OMG, and just using "something else" that they control exclusively to validate the network. This completely misses the point of what Omise is trying to do. As laid out in point 1, Omise's entire product is the decentralized network. If they switched over to token LOL that they had a large share of (50%+), they would introduce a single point of failure to the network. This would come with the costs of infrastructure and security, which would put them directly back in competition with the other e-wallets and Visa/MC. It would also completely erode the trust of network validators, making it impossible to develop a PoS secured network with the LOL token, because who would ever invest in a project headed by Omise after what they did to OMG?
In short, abandoning OMG would mean abandoning the entire product. It would be business suicide.
3) Some other group taking the code and copying OMG - This is a fair concern, but we can't lose sight of what Omise is building. The product isn't the code... it's the network. If OMG becomes successful, and company X chooses to build a clone around a new token ROFL, this will not spell doom for OMG.
Omise has a network of merchants who will bring actual transactions to the network. A widely dispersed network of OMG stakers who have some real skin in the game will bring actual security. ROFL could try to emulate it, but all else being equal why would anyone use the ROFL network? You can put Coca-Cola in a differently branded bottle, but doing this will not result in the creation of a new $42B soft drink company. No matter how your off-brand tastes, it's just not Coca-Cola.
In short, OMG's product isn't the code... it's the network. The code is just a tool. The same way that I can't reproduce a Van Gogh even if you gave me the right paints and brushes, ROFL couldn't replicate the OMG network using the same code.
So, TLDR, stay speculative. There are HUGE risks in this space. The above arguments are based on all else being equal. All things are NOT equal. Visa and MC have massive advertising budgets, and consumer recognition is a huge determinant of a product's success. It's possible that a ROFL network might be a better product than the Omise network. Continue to watch for risks, and continue to watch for opportunities.
At the same time, don't lose sight of the remarkable project that Omise is working on right now. This could be huge. If we can do the same thing as Visa, Paypal, Mastercard, Coinbase, AND the global FOREX system, I can't even speculate what an appropriate market cap would be. If we can do all of those things, but cheaper than the current mechanisms... My God.
The product is decentralization. The product is the network. Omise won't abandon this. It can't be copied. It can't be beat just with deep pockets. It could be huge.
Stay speculative... but let your inner moon-kid out every once in a while.
submitted by psytokine_storm to omise_go [link] [comments]

Accessing values in struct that are saved using Json and codeable

override func viewDidLoad() { super.viewDidLoad() let jsonUrlString = "" let urlObj = URL(string: jsonUrlString) URLSession.shared.dataTask(with: urlObj!) {(data, response, error) in guard let data = data else { return } do { let forex = try JSONDecoder().decode(Root.self, from: data) print(forex.metaData) if let latestTime = forex.metaData["4. Last Refreshed"], let latestForex = forex.timeSeriesFX5Min[latestTime] { print(latestForex) } } catch { print(error) } }.resume() } } struct Root: Codable { let metaData: [String: String] let timeSeriesFX5Min: [String:Forex] enum CodingKeys: String, CodingKey { case timeSeriesFX5Min = "Time Series FX (5min)" case metaData = "Meta Data" } } // MARK: - TimeSeriesFX5Min struct Forex: Codable { let the1Open, the2High, the3Low, the4Close: String enum CodingKeys: String, CodingKey { case the1Open = "1. open" case the2High = "2. high" case the3Low = "3. low" case the4Close = "4. close" }
That's the code when am trying to access the struct to be able to get to use the variables that are stored there it keeps throwing an error and am unable to access them to perform an operation.
submitted by theeama to programminghelp [link] [comments]

Unable to read codable struct values

I am trying to access the values in the Forex struct shown below because I want to perform some basic calculations.
The first part of the code reads the JSON API and saves the most recent values in the struct Forex. This is printed out to console to confirm that it's working and i am reading and saving the values.

The next part is where i am having a headache, i know the values are being saved when the program is run but i am unable to access the values stored in the struct.

I have tried reading it normal way, i have tried var a = Forex () and still no hope.

All help is really appreciated

let jsonUrlString = ""
let urlObj = URL(string: jsonUrlString)
URLSession.shared.dataTask(with: urlObj!) {(data, response, error) in
guard let data = data else { return }
do {
let forex = try JSONDecoder().decode(Root.self, from: data)
if let latestTime = forex.metaData["4. Last Refreshed"], let latestForex = forex.timeSeriesFX5Min[latestTime] {
} catch {
struct Root: Codable {
let metaData: [String: String]
let timeSeriesFX5Min: [String:Forex]
enum CodingKeys: String, CodingKey {
case timeSeriesFX5Min = "Time Series FX (5min)"
case metaData = "Meta Data"
// MARK: - TimeSeriesFX5Min
struct Forex: Codable {
let open, high, low, close: String
enum CodingKeys: String, CodingKey {
case open = "1. open"
case high = "2. high"
case low = "3. low"
case close = "4. close"
submitted by theeama to swift [link] [comments]

Accessing values in struct that are saved using Json and codeable

override func viewDidLoad() {
let jsonUrlString = "\_INTRADAY&from\_symbol=EUR&to\_symbol=USD&interval=5min&apikey=demo"
let urlObj = URL(string: jsonUrlString)
URLSession.shared.dataTask(with: urlObj!) {(data, response, error) in
guard let data = data else { return }
do {
let forex = try JSONDecoder().decode(Root.self, from: data)
if let latestTime = forex.metaData["4. Last Refreshed"], let latestForex = forex.timeSeriesFX5Min[latestTime] {
} catch {
struct Root: Codable {
let metaData: [String: String]
let timeSeriesFX5Min: [String:Forex]
enum CodingKeys: String, CodingKey {
case timeSeriesFX5Min = "Time Series FX (5min)"
case metaData = "Meta Data"
// MARK: - TimeSeriesFX5Min
struct Forex: Codable {
let the1Open, the2High, the3Low, the4Close: String
enum CodingKeys: String, CodingKey {
case the1Open = "1. open"
case the2High = "2. high"
case the3Low = "3. low"
case the4Close = "4. close"
That's the code when am trying to access the struct to be able to get to use the variables that are stored there it keeps throwing an error and am unable to access them to perform an operation.
submitted by theeama to CodingHelp [link] [comments]

Android Only Paid Apps – Week 12 2019 [Selective Download]

For your convenience the Apk files have been uploaded into 3 separate selective ZIP files, enjoy!

Android - Only Paid Apps - Week 12 2019 Part 1:

Android - Only Paid Apps - Week 12 2019 Part 2:

Android - Only Paid Apps - Week 12 2019 Part 3:

Download Links:

Android Only Paid APPs - Week 12 2019 Part 1 (930 MB): Download Link 1 / Download Link 2 / Download link 3
Android Only Paid APPs - Week 12 2019 Part 2 (928 MB): Download Link 1 / Download Link 2 / Download link 3
Android Only Paid APPs - Week 12 2019 Part 3 (753 MB): Download Link 1 / Download Link 2 / Download link 3
Download More Apps Collection!
Originally Uploaded by: AndroGalaxy
submitted by HabeEvil to 1000APKS [link] [comments]

JPMorgan Bitcoin Analyst Report Part 2 - Full Text (sorry, no graphs)

Part 1: Part 3:
A discussion of bitcoin should begin with an Economics 101 refresher on money – what it is, how it is created and why we hold it. The classic definition of money is anything that serves as medium of exchange, unit of account and store of value. A medium of exchange can be anything deliverable for a good or service, whether a mundane object, a precious metal or piece of paper. In allcases, users value the medium because employing it is more efficient than bartering. A unit of account is a way of measuring value from a common reference point, thus also facilitating commerce because goods can be compared more easily. (Recall the euro’s usefulness in this regard since now prices in Europe are comparable across 18 countries.) A store of value is just a way of holding wealth until it is exchanged for goods and services or lent or given to someone else.
For centuries precious metals, or paper currencies convertible into metal at a fixed rate, served these three functions. But followers of financial history know the limitation of a system based on a fixed or slow-growing money supply: it imposes uncomfortable financial discipline on governments, households and corporates.
Hence the progressive debasement of pure gold coins with alloys; the global abandonment of the gold standard during the financial strains during World War I; and the US government’s suspension of the dollar’s gold convertibility given fiscal and balance of payments pressure from the Vietnam War.
Today most countries employ fiat currencies, or paper and coins with no intrinsic worth whose perceived value stems from government declaration (or fiat) collective belief. The government creates demand for a currency by declaring it legal tender, meaning it must be accepted as payment for all debts and it will be used in any transactions between the government and other agents.
Consumers and corporates accept this fiat currency because it is a requirement for settling all debts public (paying taxes) and private. The government attempts to guard the value of money by maintaining a monopoly on its production to avoid counterfeiting, and by establishing a central bank with a mandate to manage its supply responsibly over time.
While this system may sound like blithe existence in The Matrix, this relationship amongst government, central bank, households, corporates and fiat currencies is much more efficient than an alternative like barter. It also makes macroeconomic shocks much easier to manage than an alternative like the gold standard (recall the deflation of the Great Depression and more recently peripheral Europe).
Bitcoin proposes an alternative, however. If – despite their mandates – the world's biggest central banks risk inflation and currency debasement via the rapid expansion of their balance sheets, and if even European governments still impose capital controls (Cyprus), couldn’t a non-state entity more responsibly supply a fiat-like currency to the world? And if this currency were created and exchanged digitally amongst peers of consumers and corporates, it would have the additional advantage of avoiding the fees imposed by financial intermediaries as well as the loss of privacy inherent in third-party payments systems. Hence the purported appeal of a virtual currency: a medium of exchange, a unit of account and a store of value without the alleged recklessness, capriciousness, siphoning and snooping inherent in traditional systems. Even leaving aside this caricature of bitcoin's underlying philosophy, there is something compelling about the idea.
Simple in theory, but more complex in practice. Consider the infrastructure of a traditional monetary and payments system to highlight what bitcoin attempts to replace. A traditional financial system is a national network comprising a central bank owned by a government, which creates money by physically printing currency and minting coins, or by electronically creating bank reservess. That money is used by households, consumers and the government to facilitate trade and investment via a payments system of banks and other financial intermediaries (think PayPal, Visa, Western Union and in some countries, the post office). Financial intermediaries provide numerous services of varying complexity, but their role in the payments system is simple: verify that Customer A has sufficient funds to pay Customer B, then securely transfer ownership of that money between accounts. For assuming that verification and transfer risk, intermediaries levy a fee.
Bitcoin performs these functions of money creation, payment verification and fund transfer quite differently. Its network is international and comprises miners who create the currency and users who obtain the currency to buy goods and services. There is no central monetary authority or regulator. There is also no financial intermediary for exchanging bitcoins for real products. The closest to an intermediary is an exchanger who will swap bitcoins for traditional fiat currencies like dollars, euros, yen or renminbi, like a forex dealer or futures exchange.7
Miners create bitcoins electronically by solving a mathematical algorithm released in 2009 by an unidentified programmer (or perhaps group of programmers) known by the pseudonym Satoshi Nakamoto. Anyone can be a miner; they simply need to download the software required to interact with others on the network, and acquire hardware powerful enough to run the multitudinous calculations to solve the algorithm. Since the technology required to solve an increasingly complex algorithm grows over time, miners will probably be programming specialists rather than the average consumer or businessperson.
Any individual or business can be a bitcoin user, however, by establishing an electronic account know as a wallet. This wallet is associated with a user's electronic address but not to any other identifying information such as their name, phone number or physical address. Thus bitcoin is a pseudonymous system rather than an anonymous one in that every user is known by something other than the legal names associated with traditional banking.
To provide security as well as transact with other users, bitcoin employs cryptography which assigns two keys (alphanumeric codes) to each account – a private one known only to them and a public one known to all other users in the network. When two users wish to transact, they send a message to the network using their public keys signed by their private keys. This transaction forms part of a block chain or bundle of transactions entirely in the public domain along with all other historical bitcoin transactions performed in the network.
Miners compete to verify that this trade is authentic via algorithms to confirm that indeed a user possesses the bitcoin and did not previously spend it. Programmers (miners) who solve the equations to authenticate a block of transactions receive 25 bitcoins increasing the money supply. Whenever the algorithm is solved, it becomes computationally more difficult so that the next attempt requires more time an effort (i.e. computing power). This feedback mechanism limits the growth rate of bitcoin supply, so is somewhat analogous to the production constraint on gold. The more that is mined, the greater the requirement to dig deeper pits, the greater effort required to extract the marginal ounce and the higher the price of the marginal ounce (or coin). The stock of bitcoins is arbitrarily set at 21 million units to be mined by 2140, 12 million of which have already been mined. At early-February market prices of about $700 per unit, the current bitcoin money supply has a value of about $8.5bn, equivalent to the market capitalisation of the Mauritius Stock Exchange.
As complicated as this process is, it begins to address several acknowledged deficiencies of fiat currencies. It provides steady, predictable growth in the money supply. It eliminates the risk of capital controls because the network lacks a central authority. It provides verification of fund balances to avoid fraud. And it eliminates or at least significantly reduces transaction costs for payments because verifiers are rewarded through bitcoin creation. As fanciful – and indeed Matrix-like – as this bitcoin creation system sounds, perhaps it requires no more suspended disbelief than the traditional fiat system in which a government declares paper to have value and a central bank or national mint thus issues the specie. One doesn’t need to be the caricatured miscreant, Austrian economist or anarchist to appreciate the appeal of such a system.
submitted by twobitidiot to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

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The Biggest Reason Most Forex Strategies Fail (And What To ...

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